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The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2010 the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s.


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Military

Military branches
Mongolian Armed Forces: Mongolian Army, Mongolian Air Force; there is no navy (2010)

Military service age and obligation
18-25 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2006)

Manpower available for military service
Males age 16-49 898,546
Females age 16-49 891,192 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
Males age 16-49 726,199
Females age 16-49 756,628 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
Male 30,829
Female 29,648 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures World Ranking: 107
1.4% of GDP (2006)


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Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar):


GPS points from Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar)

Baydaragiin Huryee Bayanhongor Aymag


Tseregin-gol Mongolia (general)

Bijin Gol Govi-altay Aymag

Bayshinta Hiid Omnogovi

Samiin Bulag Suhbaatar Aymag

Reka Tszan Central Aymag

I-ho-t'u-erh-ken-ni-ta-fan Mongolia (general)




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