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For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Seu d'Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. For decades Andorra enjoyed its status as a small refuge of fiscal and banking freedom and benefitted from Spanish and French tourists attracted to the country's duty-free shopping. The situation has changed in recent years as Andorra started to tax foreign investment and other sectors. Tourism accounts for over 80% of Andorra's gross domestic product.


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Geography

Location
Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates
42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references
Europe

Area World Ranking: 195
Total 468 sq km
Land 468 sq km
Water 0 sq km

Area - comparative
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries
Total 120.3 km
Border countries France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims
None (landlocked)

Climate
Temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain
Rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Riu Runer 840 m
Highest point Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources
Hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use
Arable land 2.13%
Permanent crops 0%
Other 97.87% (2005)

Irrigated land
NA

Natural hazards
Avalanches

Environment - current issues
Deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
Signed, but not ratified
None of the selected agreements

Geography - note
Landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees


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  Andorra (Andorra La Vella):


  GPS points from Andorra (Andorra La Vella)

Obaga D' Encortesa Andorra (general)

Planell De Campillar Andorra (general)

Bordes Del Lloset Parroquia De Canillo

Pic De La Passada Andorra (general)

Comes De Banyas Parroquia De La Massana

Comis Vell Andorra (general)

Bosc Del Barrer D'areny Andorra (general)

Canal De Les Claperes Andorra (general)




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