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Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Dayton Accords also established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR's mission changed from peacekeeping to civil policing in October 2007, with its presence reduced from nearly 7,000 to less than 2,500 troops. Currently EUFOR deploys around 1,300 troops in theater.


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Communications

Telephones - main lines in use World Ranking: 80
955,900 (2011)

Telephones - mobile cellular World Ranking: 120
3.171 million (2011)

Telephone system
General assessment
Post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by a internationally sponsored program, resulting in sharp increases in the number of fixed telephone lines available
Domestic
Fixed-line teledensity roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and, stands at roughly 80 telephones per 100 persons
International
Country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2011)

Broadcast media
3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV stations broadcasting; 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations (2010)

Internet country code
.ba

Internet hosts World Ranking: 79
146,152 (2010)

Internet users World Ranking: 85
1.422 million (2009)


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  Bosnia And Herzegovina (Sarajevo):


  GPS points from Bosnia And Herzegovina (Sarajevo)

Kovacici Republika Srpska

Mala Kraljica Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Velika Kosa Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Borovac Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Police Republika Srpska

Tisovina Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Skipina Bosnia And Herzegovina (general)

Vodeni Kuk Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina




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