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People and Society






Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Dayton Accords also established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR's mission changed from peacekeeping to civil policing in October 2007, with its presence reduced from nearly 7,000 to less than 2,500 troops. Currently EUFOR deploys around 1,300 troops in theater.


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People And Society

Noun Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
Adjective Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups
Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Bosnian (official), Croatian (official), Serbian

Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%

Population World Ranking: 128
3,879,296 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
14% (male 333,989/female 313,234)
15-64 years
71% (male 1,655,669/female 1,625,750)
65 years and over
15% (male 283,233/female 410,288) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 41.2 years
Male 40 years
Female 42.4 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 193
-0.003% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 210
8.89 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 70
8.91 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 79
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 49% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
SARAJEVO (capital) 392,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.07 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.69 male(s)/female
Total population
0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 156
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 155
Total 8.47 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 9.72 deaths/1,000 live births
7.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 45
Total population 78.96 years
Male 75.42 years
Female 82.77 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 216
1.24 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 21
10.9% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
1.4179 physicians/1,000 population (2005)

Hospital bed density
3.04 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 113
Less than 0.1% (2007 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 146
900 (2007 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 145
100 (2001 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 20
21.7% (2002)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 114
1.6% (2006)

Education expenditures

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 97.9%
Male 99.4%
Female 96.5% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 14 years
Male 13 years
Female 14 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 4
Total 47.3%
Male 44.7%
Female 51.9% (2008)


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  Bosnia And Herzegovina (Sarajevo):

  GPS points from Bosnia And Herzegovina (Sarajevo)

Dukalici Republika Srpska

Javorak Republika Srpska

Glinica Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Bijeljani Republika Srpska

Gornje Runje Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Vina Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Rancici Republika Srpska

Gora Janicka Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina
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