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The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. In April 2009, Croatia joined NATO; Croatia signed the EU Accession Treaty in December 2011 and ratified the Treaty in January, 2012. Croatia will become a member after all 27 EU members ratify the treaty, with a target date of July 2013.


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Geography

Location
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates
45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references
Europe

Area World Ranking: 127
Total 56,594 sq km
Land 55,974 sq km
Water 620 sq km

Area - comparative
Slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries
Total 1,982 km
Border countries
Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia 241 km, Montenegro 25 km, Slovenia 455 km

Coastline
5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims
Territorial sea 12 nm
Continental shelf
200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain
Geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Adriatic Sea 0 m
Highest point Dinara 1,831 m

Natural resources
Oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use
Arable land 25.82%
Permanent crops 2.19%
Other 71.99% (2005)

Irrigated land
310 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
105.5 cu km (1998)

Natural hazards
Destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues
Air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified
None of the selected agreements

Geography - note
Controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks


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  Croatia (Zagreb):


  GPS points from Croatia (Zagreb)

Rt Ploca Zadarska Zupanija

Kukmenci Vukovarsko-srijemska Zupanija

Gradina Licko-senjska Zupanija

Slavonska Orahovica Viroviticko-podravska Zupanija

Uvala Mala Stinica Croatia (general)

Suljkove Kuce Splitsko-dalmatinska Zupanija

Breznik Karlovacka Zupanija

Kobila Sibensko-kninska Zupanija




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