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El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba - one of the longest-serving heads of state in the world - dominated the country's political scene for four decades (1967-2009) following independence from France in 1960. President BONGO introduced a nominal multiparty system and a new constitution in the early 1990s. However, allegations of electoral fraud during local elections in 2002-03 and the presidential elections in 2005 exposed the weaknesses of formal political structures in Gabon. Following President BONGO's death in 2009, new elections in brought Ali Ben BONGO, son of the former president, to power. Despite constrained political conditions, Gabon's small population, abundant natural resources, and considerable foreign support have helped make it one of the more prosperous and stable African countries.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form Gabonese Republic
Conventional short form Gabon
Local long form Republique Gabonaise
Local short form Gabon

Government type
Republic; multiparty presidential regime

Capital
Name Libreville
Geographic coordinates 0 23 N, 9 27 E
Time difference
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

Independence
17 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday
Independence Day, 17 August (1960)

Constitution
Adopted 14 March 1991

Legal system
Mixed legal system of French civil law and customary law

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state
President Ali Ben BONGO Ondimba (since 16 October 2009)
Head of government
Prime Minister Raymond NDONG SIMA (since 27 February 2012)
Cabinet
Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
Elections
President elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 30 August 2009 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results
President Ali Ben BONGO Ondimba elected; percent of vote - Ali Ben BONGO Ondimba 41.7%, Andre MBA OBAME 25.9%, Pierre MAMBOUNDOU 25.2%, Zacharie MYBOTO 3.9%, other 3.3%
Note
President BONGO died on 8 June 2009 after serving as president for 32 years; in accordance with the constitution he was replaced on an interim basis by the president of the Senate, Rose Francine ROGOMBE on 10 June 2009; new elections were held on 30 August 2009 and the son of the former president, Ali Ben BONGO Ondimba, was elected president

Legislative branch
Bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (102 seats; members elected by members of municipal councils and departmental assemblies to serve six-year terms) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections
Senate - last held on 18 January 2009 (next to be held in January 2015); National Assembly - last held on 17 December 2011 (next to be held in December 2016)
Election results
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDG 75, RPG 6, UGDD 3, CLR 2, PGCI 2, PSD 2, UPG 2, ADERE 1, independents 9; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDG 114, RPG 3, others 3

Judicial branch
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consisting of three chambers - Judicial, Administrative, and Accounts; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal; Court of State Security; county courts

Political parties and leaders
Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean Boniface ASSELE]; Congress for Democracy and Justice or CDJ [Jules Aristide Bourdes OGOULIGUENDE]; Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [Divungui-di-Ndinge DIDJOB]; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG [Simplice Nguedet MANZELA] (former sole party); Gabonese Party for Progress or PGP [Benoit Mouity NZAMBA]; Gabonese Union for Democracy and Development or UGDD [Zacherie MYBOTO]; National Rally of Woodcutters or RNB; National Rally of Woodcutters-Rally for Gabon or RNB-RPG (Bucherons) [Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE]; Party of Development and Social Solidarity or PDS [Seraphin Ndoat REMBOGO]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis Gaston MAYILA]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]; Union for Democracy and Social Integration or UDIS; Union of Gabonese Patriots or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU]

Political pressure groups and leaders
NA

International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission
Ambassador Michael MOUSSA-ADAMO
Chancery
Suite 200, 2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Note
Temporary address: 1630 Connecticut Avenue NW, 7th floor, Washington, DC 20009
Telephone [1] (202) 797-1000
FAX [1] (202) 332-0668
Consulate(s) New York

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Eric D. BENJAMINSON
Embassy
Boulevard du Bord de Mer, Libreville
Mailing address
Centre Ville, B. P. 4000, Libreville; pouch:2270 Libreville Place, Washington, DC 20521-2270
Telephone
[241] 76 20 03 through 76 20 04, after hours - 07380171
FAX [241] 74 55 07

Flag description
Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue; green represents the country's forests and natural resources, gold represents the equator (which transects Gabon) as well as the sun, blue represents the sea

National symbol(s)
Black panther

National anthem
Name "La Concorde" (The Concorde)
Lyrics/music Georges Aleka DAMAS
Note Adopted 1960


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  Gabon (Libreville):


  GPS points from Gabon (Libreville)

Binong Ogooue-ivindo

Massana Ngounie

Movous Ii Province Du Woleu-ntem

Vometza Province De L' Ogooue-ivindo

Obenzi Ii Province Du Moyen-ogooue

Vema Province Du Woleu-ntem

Pointe Ognonie Province De L' Estuaire

Nkolvem Woleu-ntem




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