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Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.


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Geography

Location
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain

Geographic coordinates
36 08 N, 5 21 W

Map references
Europe

Area World Ranking: 243
Total 6.5 sq km
Land 6.5 sq km
Water 0 sq km

Area - comparative
More than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.

Land boundaries
Total 1.2 km
Border countries Spain 1.2 km

Coastline
12 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea 3 nm

Climate
Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Terrain
A narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Highest point Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources
None

Land use
Arable land 0%
Permanent crops 0%
Other 100% (2005)

Irrigated land
NA

Natural hazards
NA

Environment - current issues
Limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant

Geography - note
Strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea


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  Gibraltar [ United Kingdom ] (Overseas Territory):


  GPS points from Gibraltar [ United Kingdom ] (Overseas Territory)

Muelle Principal Gibraltar (general)

Grand Casemates Square Gibraltar (general)

Middle Gate Gibraltar (general)

Prince Of Wales Dock Number One Gibraltar (general)

Punta Grande De Europa Gibraltar (general)

Saint Jago's School Gibraltar (general)

Commercial Square Gibraltar (general)

Both Worlds Chalets Gibraltar (general)




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