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Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-Communists and Communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union in 2001. In 2010, the prospect of a Greek default on its euro-denominated debt created severe strains within the EMU and raised the question of whether a member country might voluntarily leave the common currency or be removed.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Greek(s)
Adjective Greek

Ethnic groups
Population: Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (2001 census)
Note
Percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity

Languages
Greek (official) 99%, other (includes English and French) 1%

Religions
Greek Orthodox (official) 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%

Population World Ranking: 78
10,767,827 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
14.2% (male 787,143/female 741,356)
15-64 years
66.2% (male 3,555,447/female 3,567,383)
65 years and over
19.6% (male 923,177/female 1,185,630) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 42.8 years
Male 41.7 years
Female 43.9 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 185
0.06% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 206
9.08 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 43
10.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 34
2.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 61% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
ATHENS (capital) 3.252 million; Thessaloniki 834,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.78 male(s)/female
Total population
0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 181
3 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 180
Total 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 5.41 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
4.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 31
Total population 80.05 years
Male 77.48 years
Female 82.79 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 204
1.39 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 67
7.4% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
6.043 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
4.77 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 127
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 103
8,800 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 86
Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 17
22.5% (2003)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 105
4% of GDP (2005)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 96%
Male 97.8%
Female 94.2% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 17 years
Male 16 years
Female 17 years (2007)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 25
Total 25.8%
Male 19.4%
Female 33.9% (2009)


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  Greece (Athens):


  GPS points from Greece (Athens)

Nisida Soros Ionian Islands

Akra Makria Pounda Greece (general)

Akra Katero South Aegean

Vesini Greece (general)

Nisida Plateia Ionian Islands

Zernovitsa Greece (general)

Kourtes Crete

Oros Dysoro Greece (general)




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