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The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. After decades of repressive rule, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance by the separatist Free Papua Movement.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 10
676 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 185
Over 3,047 m 4
2,438 to 3,047 m 22
1,524 to 2,437 m 51
914 to 1,523 m 71
Under 914 m 37 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 491
1,524 to 2,437 m 5
914 to 1,523 m 24
Under 914 m 462 (2012)

Heliports
76 (2012)

Pipelines
Condensate 812 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 7,165 km; oil 5,984 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 617 km; water 44 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 35
Total 5,042 km
Narrow gauge
5,042 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 14
Total 437,759 km
Paved 258,744 km
Unpaved 179,015 km (2008)

Waterways World Ranking: 6
21,579 km (2011)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 8
Total 1,340
By type
Bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11
Foreign-owned
69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)
Registered in other countries
95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

Transportation - note
The International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; 2010 saw the highest levels of armed robbery against ships since 2007; 40 commercial vessels were attacked, boarded, or hijacked both at anchor or while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift


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  Indonesia (Jakarta):


  GPS points from Indonesia (Jakarta)

Tjianten Indonesia (general)

Kuala Selangor Indonesia (general)

Kebayoran Jakarta Raya

Gunung Gede Indonesia (general)

Pulaumentoro Provinsi Jambi

Singkang Sulawesi Selatan

Ketara East Nusa Tenggara

Tjileueur Jawa Barat




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