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People and Society






In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. An insurgency led by Maoist extremists broke out in 1996. The ensuing 10-year civil war between insurgents and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and assumption of absolute power by the king. Several weeks of mass protests in April 2006 were followed by several months of peace negotiations between the Maoists and government officials, and culminated in a November 2006 peace accord and the promulgation of an interim constitution. Following a nation-wide election in April 2008, the newly formed Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a federal democratic republic and abolished the monarchy at its first meeting the following month. The Constituent Assembly elected the country's first president in July. Between 2008 and 2011 there have been four different coalition governments, led twice by the United Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist, which received a plurality of votes in the Constituent Assembly election, and twice by the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist. In November 2011, Maoist Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI, who was elected in August 2011, and the leaders of the main political parties signed an agreement seeking to conclude the peace process and recommit the Constituent Assembly to finish drafting the constitution by a May 2012 deadline.


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People And Society

Noun Nepali (singular and plural)
Adjective Nepali

Ethnic groups
Chhettri 15.5%, Brahman-Hill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%, unspecified 2.8% (2001 census)

Nepali (official) 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5% (2001 census)
Many in government and business also speak English (2001 est.)

Hindu 80.6%, Buddhist 10.7%, Muslim 4.2%, Kirant 3.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)

Population World Ranking: 41
29,890,686 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
34.6% (male 5,177,264/female 4,983,864)
15-64 years
61.1% (male 8,607,338/female 9,344,537)
65 years and over
4.4% (male 597,628/female 681,252) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 22.1 years
Male 21.2 years
Female 22.9 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 67
1.768% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 78
21.85 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 144
6.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 31
2.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 19% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
4.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
KATHMANDU (capital) 990,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.87 male(s)/female
Total population
0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 60
170 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 54
Total 43.13 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 43.15 deaths/1,000 live births
43.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 161
Total population 66.51 years
Male 65.26 years
Female 67.82 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 87
2.41 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 116
5.8% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.21 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density
5 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 71
0.4% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 51
64,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 40
4,700 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease
Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 7
38.8% (2006)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 79
4.6% of GDP (2009)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 60.3%
Male 73%
Female 48.3% (2010 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 9 years
Male 10 years
Female 8 years (2003)


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  Nepal (Kathmandu):

  GPS points from Nepal (Kathmandu)

Marsyandi River Nepal (general)

Gyala Shankou Nepal (general)

Atrauli Nepal (general)

Siraha Nepal (general)

Sihali Nepal (general)

Biling La Nepal (general)

Hajminia Nepal (general)

Sidhnia Ghat Nepal (general)
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