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People and Society






The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. A 20-year rule by Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts that prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992. His administration was marked by increased stability and by progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. Her presidency was marred by several corruption allegations but the Philippine economy was one of the few to avoid contraction following the 2008 global financial crisis, expanding each year of her administration. Benigno AQUINO III was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2010. The Philippine Government faces threats from several groups, some of which are on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Manila has waged a decades-long struggle against ethnic Moro insurgencies in the southern Philippines, which has led to a peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front and on-again/off-again peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The decades-long Maoist-inspired New People's Army insurgency also operates through much of the country. The Philippines faces increased tension with China over disputed territorial claims in the South China Sea.


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People And Society

Noun Filipino(s)
Adjective Philippine

Ethnic groups
Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)

Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan

Catholic 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%, Aglipayan 2%), Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)

Population World Ranking: 12
103,775,002 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
34.6% (male 17,999,279/female 17,285,040)
15-64 years
61.1% (male 31,103,967/female 31,097,203)
65 years and over
4.3% (male 1,876,805/female 2,471,644) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 23.1 years
Male 22.6 years
Female 23.6 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 63
1.873% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 58
24.98 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 185
4.98 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 156
-1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 49% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
MANILA (capital) 11.449 million; Davao 1.48 million; Cebu City 845,000; Zamboanga 827,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.76 male(s)/female
Total population 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 73
99 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 101
Total 18.75 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 21.21 deaths/1,000 live births
16.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 132
Total population 71.94 years
Male 68.99 years
Female 75.03 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 53
3.15 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 169
3.8% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
1.153 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 147
Less than 0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 104
8,700 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 110
Fewer than 200 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases
Dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis
Water contact disease Leptospirosis (2009)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 62
4.3% (2003)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 32
20.7% (2003)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 139
2.8% of GDP (2008)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 92.6%
Male 92.5%
Female 92.7% (2000 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 12 years
Male 12 years
Female 12 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 67
Total 17.4%
Male 16.2%
Female 19.3% (2009)


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  Philippines (Manila):

  GPS points from Philippines (Manila)

Cacbucao Island Mimaropa

Binga Palawan

Lamit Bay Camarines Sur

Capasam Ilocos Norte

Pina River Pampanga

Alungung Point Masbate

Cogtong Caraga

Tancan Island Tawi-tawi
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