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Administrative divisions (GPS Maps)

Geography

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The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form None
Conventional short form Romania
Local long form None
Local short form Romania

Government type
Republic

Capital
Name Bucharest
Geographic coordinates 44 26 N, 26 06 E
Time difference
UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time
+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday
Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)

Constitution
8 December 1991; revised 29 October 2003

Legal system
Civil law system

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state
President Traian BASESCU (since 27 August 2012)
Note: President BASESCU has had two suspensions to his presidency since assuming the post on 20 December 2004, the first from 20 April-23 May 2007, the second from 10 July-27 August 2012; he survived a referendum on both occasions
Head of government
Prime Minister Victor-Viorel PONTA (since 7 May 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Florin GEORGESCU (since 7 May 2012)
Cabinet
Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Elections
President elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
Election results
Traian BASESCU reelected president; percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 50.3%, Mircea GEOANA 49.7%

Legislative branch
Bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (137 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (334 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms)
Elections
Senate - last held on 30 November 2008 (next by November 2012); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 30 November 2008 (next by November 2012)
Election results
Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PC 34.2%, PDL 33.6%, PNL 18.7%, UDMR 6.4%, other 7.1%; seats by alliance/party - PSD-PC 49, PDL 51, PNL 28, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PC 33.1%, PDL 32.4%, PNL 18.6%, UDMR 6.2%, ethnic minorities 3.6%, other 6.1%; seats by alliance/party - PDL 115, PSD-PC 114, PNL 65, UDMR 22, ethnic minorities 18

Judicial branch
Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-year terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, with three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies

Political parties and leaders
Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR); Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Emil BOC]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Crin ANTONESCU]; National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)

Political pressure groups and leaders
Other
Various human rights and professional associations

International organization participation
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission
Ambassador Adrian Cosmin VIERITA
Chancery
1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone
[1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX [1] (202) 232-4748
Consulate(s) general Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Mark GITENSTEIN
Embassy
Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, Bucharest, 015118
Mailing address
Pouch: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
Telephone [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX [40] (21) 200-3442

Flag description
Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
Note
Now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

National symbol(s)
Golden eagle

National anthem
Name
"Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
Lyrics/music Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
Note
Adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution


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  Romania (Bucharest):


  GPS points from Romania (Bucharest)

Oderhellen Judetul Harghita

Ceganii Judetul Constanta

Berevoe Judetul Giurgiu

Inau Judetul Salaj

Neagra Brosteni Judetul Neamt

Taplaul Judetul Vaslui

Sukha Reka Romania (general)

Gusitei Judetul Vaslui




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