North America
North America
South America
South America


Administrative divisions (GPS Maps)


People and Society






Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Since southern independence Sudan has been combating rebels from the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.


Advertisements Advertisements

People And Society

Noun Sudanese (singular and plural)
Adjective Sudanese

Ethnic groups
Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata

Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
Program of "Arabization" in process

Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority

Population World Ranking: 36
Includes the population of South Sudan (8,260,490); demographic data includes South Sudan (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
42.1% (male 9,696,726/female 9,286,894)
15-64 years
55.2% (male 12,282,082/female 12,571,424)
65 years and over
2.7% (male 613,817/female 596,559) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 18.7 years
Male 18.5 years
Female 19 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 60
1.884% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 39
31.7 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 90
8.33 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 189
-4.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 40% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
3.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
KHARTOUM (capital) 5.021 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over 1.24 male(s)/female
Total population
1.02 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 8
730 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 36
Total 55.63 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 61.24 deaths/1,000 live births
49.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 182
Total population 62.57 years
Male 60.58 years
Female 64.67 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 37
4.17 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 70
7.3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.28 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 44
1.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 22
260,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 23
12,000 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Very high
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases
Malaria, dengue fever, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
Water contact disease Schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease Meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact disease Rabies
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 15
31.7% (2006)

Education expenditures

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 61.1%
Male 71.8%
Female 50.5% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 4 years (2000)


--- There are no comments yet ---

Add a new comment:

You have to log in to add a comment!


Avertisments  Advertisement

Members area  Members area



Forgot password?

  Sudan (Khartoum):

  GPS points from Sudan (Khartoum)

Qawz Aldukan River Nile State

Jabal Umm Shujayrah Northern Kordofan State

Dongotona Eastern Equatoria State

Jabo Southern Darfur State

Abu `ud Southern Darfur State

Jabal Lindiyab Al Ba R Al A Mar

Jebel Bureig Northern

Hillat Midesisa Nahr An Nil
Terms of use
Privacy policy

# 0.0198 sec 

contact AT

© 2006 - 2022