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Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims portions of eastern Sool and Sanaag. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while United Nations-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders appointed 275 members to a new parliament replacing the TFP and the subsequent election, by parliament, of a new president.


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Economy - overview
Despite the lack of effective national governance, Somalia has maintained a healthy informal economy, largely based on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications. Agriculture is the most important sector with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Livestock, hides, fish, charcoal, and bananas are Somalia's principal exports, while sugar, sorghum, corn, qat, and machined goods are the principal imports. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and the machinery sold as scrap metal. Somalia's service sector has grown. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money transfer/remittance services have sprouted throughout the country, handling up to $1.6 billion in remittances annually. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to the newest electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate and are supported with private-security militias. Somalia's arrears to the IMF have continued to grow.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 160
$5.896 billion (2010 est.)
$5.75 billion (2009 est.)
$5.607 billion (2008 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$2.372 billion (2010 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 130
2.6% (2010 est.)
2.6% (2009 est.)
2.6% (2008 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 222
$600 (2010 est.)
$600 (2009 est.)
$600 (2008 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 60.2%
Industry 7.4%
Services 32.5% (2009 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 98
3.447 million (few skilled laborers) (2007)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 71%
Industry and services 29% (1975)

Unemployment rate

Population below poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% NA%
Highest 10% NA%

Revenues $NA
Expenditures $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices)
Businesses print their own money, so inflation rates cannot be easily determined

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Agriculture - products
Bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish

A few light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication

Industrial production growth rate

Electricity - production World Ranking: 163
315 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 169
293 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 119
110.1 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 167
5,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 115
1,109 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 167
3,827 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 194
0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 127
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 131
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 181
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 128
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 90
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 170
$515.8 million (2010 est.)
$300 million

Exports - commodities
Livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal

Exports - partners
UAE 50.7%, Yemen 19%, Oman 12.8% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 173
$1.263 billion (2010 est.)
$798 million

Imports - commodities
Manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat

Imports - partners
Djibouti 27.8%, India 13.7%, Kenya 7.3%, Pakistan 6.6%, China 6.4%, Oman 5%, UAE 4.9%, Yemen 4.5% (2011)

Debt - external World Ranking: 134
$2.942 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$3 billion

Exchange rates
Somali shillings (SOS) per US dollar -

Fiscal year


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Somalia (Mogadishu):
Country Flag
Country Locator

GPS points from Somalia (Mogadishu)

square Humbais Gobolka Sanaag

square Dhummay Togdheer

square Ras Takouchan Gobolka Awdal

square Buqsheenle Nugaal

square Darood Galguduud

square Balley Middle Juba

square Rarmis Gobolka Woqooyi Galbeed

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