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Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, Ottoman Turkey instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. Turkey closed the common border with Armenia in 1994 in support of Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas, further hampering Armenian economic growth. In 2009, senior Armenian leaders began pursuing rapprochement with Turkey, aiming to secure an opening of the border.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Armenian(s)
Adjective Armenian

Ethnic groups
Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001 census)

Languages
Armenian (official) 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)

Religions
Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist with elements of nature worship) 1.3%

Population World Ranking: 138
2,970,495 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
17.6% (male 279,304/female 242,621)
15-64 years
72.4% (male 1,006,312/female 1,141,430)
65 years and over
10.1% (male 112,947/female 185,361) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 32.6 years
Male 29.9 years
Female 35.4 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 181
0.107% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 151
12.9 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 85
8.49 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 180
-3.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 64% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
YEREVAN (capital) 1.11 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.12 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.15 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.59 male(s)/female
Total population
0.89 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 123
30 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 102
Total 18.21 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 22.63 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
13.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 117
Total population 73.49 years
Male 69.85 years
Female 77.56 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 206
1.38 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 144
4.7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.697 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density
4.07 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 109
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 136
1,900 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 151
Fewer than 100 (2009 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 92
4.2% (2005)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 131
3% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99.6%
Male 99.7%
Female 99.4% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 12 years
Male 12 years
Female 13 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 1
Total 57.6%
Male 47.2%
Female 69.4% (2007)


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  Armenia (Yerevan):


  GPS points from Armenia (Yerevan)

Zolakhach Geghark'unik'i Marz

Aygek Armaviri Marz

Pirdoudan Syunik'i Marz

Basargecharskiy Rayon Geghark'unik'i Marz

Qayabasi Geghark'unik'i Marz

Artashe Syunik'i Marz

Akhti Kotayk

Voskresenovka Lorru Marz




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