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Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. More than 200,000 Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that led to an integrated defense force, established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005. The government of President Pierre NKURUNZIZA, who was reelected in 2010, continues to face many political and economic challenges.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form Republic of Burundi
Conventional short form Burundi
Local long form
Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
Local short form Burundi
Former Urundi

Government type
Republic

Capital
Name Bujumbura
Geographic coordinates 3 22 S, 29 21 E
Time difference
UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
17 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

Constitution
Ratified by popular referendum 28 February 2005

Legal system
Mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state
President Pierre NKURUNZIZA - Hutu (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Therence SINUNGURUZA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2010); Second Vice President Gervais RUFYIKIRI - Hutu (since 29 August 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government
President Pierre NKURUNZIZA - Hutu (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Therence SINUNGURUZA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2010); Second Vice President Gervais RUFYIKIRI - Hutu (since 29 August 2010)
Cabinet
Council of Ministers appointed by president
Elections
The president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 28 June 2010 (next to be held in 2015); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament
Election results
Pierre NKURUNZIZA elected president by popular vote; Pierre NKURUNZIZA 91.6%, other 8.4%; note - opposition parties withdrew from the election due to alleged government interference in the electoral process

Legislative branch
Bicameral Parliament or Parlement, consists of a Senate (54 seats; 34 members elected by indirect vote to serve five-year terms, with remaining seats assigned to ethnic groups and former chiefs of state) and a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (minimum 100 seats, 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi with at least 30% being women; additional seats appointed by a National Independent Electoral Commission to ensure ethnic representation; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections
Last held on 23 July 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
Election results
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - TBD; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CNDD-FDD 81.2%, UPRONA 11.6%, FRODEBU 5.9%, others 1.3%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 81, UPRONA 17, FRODEBU 5, other 3

Judicial branch
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; High Court of Justice (composed of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court)

Political parties and leaders
Governing parties
Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA]; National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Jeremie NGENDAKUMANA]; Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Bonaventure NIYOYANKANA]
Note
A multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD [Leonard NYANGOMA]; National Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]

Political pressure groups and leaders
Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC [Pacifique NININAHAZWE] (civil society umbrella organization); Observatoire de lutte contre la corruption et les malversations economiques or OLUCOME [Gabriel RUFYIRI] (anti-corruption pressure group)
Other
Hutu and Tutsi militias (loosely organized)

International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Angele NIYUHIRE
Chancery
Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
Telephone [1] (202) 342-2574
FAX [1] (202) 342-2578

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Pamela J. H. SLUTZ
Embassy
Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
Mailing address B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
Telephone [257] 223454
FAX [257] 222926

Flag description
Divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below); green symbolizes hope and optimism, white purity and peace, and red the blood shed in the struggle for independence; the three stars in the disk represent the three major ethnic groups: Hutu, Twa, Tutsi, as well as the three elements in the national motto: unity, work, progress

National symbol(s)
Lion

National anthem
Name
"Burundi Bwacu" (Our Beloved Burundi)
Lyrics/music
Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO
Note Adopted 1962


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  Burundi (Bujumbura):


  GPS points from Burundi (Bujumbura)

Gasenyi Iprovense Ya Cankuzo

Kizi Iprovense Ya Muyinga

Mubone Bujumbura

Gahuma Kayanza


Shunga Iprovense Ya Kirundo

Gakurwa Iprovense Ya Ruyigi

Gasaka Cankuzo




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