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Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority.


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Communications

Telephones - main lines in use World Ranking: 177
31,200 (2011)

Telephones - mobile cellular World Ranking: 116
3.666 million (2011)

Telephone system
General assessment
Inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone density
Domestic
Fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 35 per 100 persons
International
Country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media
1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)

Internet country code
.td

Internet hosts World Ranking: 228
5 (2010)

Internet users World Ranking: 145
168,100 (2009)


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  Chad (N'djamena):


  GPS points from Chad (N'djamena)

Bogomerom Lac

Koundjourou Batha

Begone Logone Oriental

Malamori Chari-baguirmi

Hadjer Am Gania Ouaddai

Karoua Lac

Ngara Logone Occidental

Mondo Kanem




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