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The native Taino Amerindians - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first black republic to declare independence in 1804. The poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the forced resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations. Continued violence and technical delays prompted repeated postponements, but Haiti finally did inaugurate a democratically elected president and parliament in May of 2006. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Over 300,000 people were killed and some 1 milllion left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Haitian(s)
Adjective Haitian

Ethnic groups
Black 95%, mulatto and white 5%

Languages
French (official), Creole (official)

Religions
Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%
Note
Roughly half of the population practices voodoo

Population World Ranking: 88
9,801,664 (July 2012 est.)
Note
Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years
35.9% (male 1,748,677/female 1,742,199)
15-64 years
60.1% (male 2,898,251/female 2,947,272)
65 years and over
3.9% (male 170,584/female 212,949) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 21.6 years
Male 21.4 years
Female 21.9 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 126
0.888%
Note
The preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 68
23.87 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 94
8.1 deaths/1,000 population
Note
The preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 200
-6.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 52% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
3.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) 2.143 million (2010)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.01 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.8 male(s)/female
Total population
0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 33
350 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 42
Total 52.44 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 56.47 deaths/1,000 live births
Female 48.37 deaths/1,000 live births
Note
The preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 183
Total population 62.51 years
Male 61.15 years
Female 63.89 years
Note
The preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 63
2.98 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 105
6% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.25 physicians/1,000 population (1998)

Hospital bed density
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 31
1.9% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 37
120,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 29
7,100 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases Dengue fever and malaria
Water contact disease Leptospirosis (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 39
18.9% (2006)

Education expenditures
NA

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 52.9%
Male 54.8%
Female 51.2% (2003 est.)


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  Haiti (Port-au-prince):


  GPS points from Haiti (Port-au-prince)

Adino Departement De L'artibonite

Jolimar Departement Du Centre

Morne Pere Gauthier Departement Du Nord

Corail Departement De L'ouest

Adonis Departement Du Sud

Drouillard Departement De L'ouest

Bois Tortue Departement Du Centre

Riviere Vendribuche Departement De La Grand'anse




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