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Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.


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Geography

Location
Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates
49 45 N, 6 10 E

Map references
Europe

Area World Ranking: 179
Total 2,586 sq km
Land 2,586 sq km
Water 0 sq km

Area - comparative
Slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries
Total 359 km
Border countries
Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km

Coastline
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims
None (landlocked)

Climate
Modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain
Mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Moselle River 133 m
Highest point Buurgplaatz 559 m

Natural resources
Iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Land use
Arable land 27.42%
Permanent crops 0.69%
Other
71.89% (includes Belgium) (2005)

Irrigated land
NA

Total renewable water resources
1.6 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total 0.06 cu km/yr (42%/45%/13%)
Per capita 121 cu m/yr (1999)

Natural hazards
NA

Environment - current issues
Air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified Environmental Modification

Geography - note
Landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world


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  Luxembourg (Luxembourg City):


  GPS points from Luxembourg (Luxembourg City)

Haut-colpach District De Diekirch

Bettange-sur-mess District De Luxembourg

Dommeldange District De Luxembourg

Neulocher District De Luxembourg

Walferdange District De Luxembourg

Hostert Du-grunenwald District De Luxembourg

Ferme Fahrman District De Diekirch

Lehrhaff District De Diekirch




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