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Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims portions of eastern Sool and Sanaag. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while United Nations-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders appointed 275 members to a new parliament replacing the TFP and the subsequent election, by parliament, of a new president.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Somali(s)
Adjective Somali

Ethnic groups
Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs)

Languages
Somali (official), Arabic (official, according to the Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English

Religions
Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the Transitional Federal Charter)

Population World Ranking: 86
10,085,638 (July 2012 est.)
Note
This estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare

Age structure
0-14 years
44.7% (male 2,217,890/female 2,217,063)
15-64 years
52.9% (male 2,663,729/female 2,588,716)
65 years and over
2.4% (male 95,859/female 142,383) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 17.8 years
Male 17.9 years
Female 17.8 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 72
1.596% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 7
42.12 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 9
14.55 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 211
-11.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 37% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
4.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
MOGADISHU (capital) 1.353 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.66 male(s)/female
Total population
1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 2
1,000 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 4
Total
103.72 deaths/1,000 live births
Male
112.62 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
94.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 215
Total population 50.8 years
Male 48.86 years
Female 52.8 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 3
6.26 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Physicians density
0.035 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 61
0.7% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 65
34,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 59
1,600 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases
Dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
Water contact disease Schistosomiasis
Animal contact disease Rabies (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 14
32.8% (2006)

Education expenditures
NA

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 37.8%
Male 49.7%
Female 25.8% (2001 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 3 years
Male 3 years
Female 2 years (2007)


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  Somalia (Mogadishu):


  GPS points from Somalia (Mogadishu)

Lama Shaaqa Jubbada Hoose

Liqaylay Gedo

Baargeel Mudug

Dabakadol Gobolka Woqooyi Galbeed

Wanrir Gobolka Sool

Bul Gobolka Awdal

Xawaalo Mogley Hiiraan

Iaheele Gobolka Sool




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