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Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century established widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to cede control of the government to the military in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and Blanco parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Uruguayan(s)
Adjective Uruguayan

Ethnic groups
White 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent)

Languages
Spanish (official), Portunol, Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)

Religions
Roman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006)

Population World Ranking: 134
3,316,328 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
22.2% (male 373,613/female 361,160)
15-64 years
64.1% (male 1,042,163/female 1,078,357)
65 years and over
13.7% (male 180,729/female 272,513) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 33.8 years
Male 32.2 years
Female 35.5 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 170
0.24% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 148
13.4 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 59
9.55 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 157
-1.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 92% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
0.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
MONTEVIDEO (capital) 1.633 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.66 male(s)/female
Total population
0.93 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 124
29 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 149
Total 9.44 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 10.47 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
8.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 73
Total population 76.41 years
Male 73.27 years
Female 79.66 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 143
1.87 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 68
7.4% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.736 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
2.9 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 67
0.5% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 96
9,900 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths
NA

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 79
6% (2004)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 135
2.9% of GDP (2006)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 98%
Male 97.6%
Female 98.4% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 16 years
Male 14 years
Female 17 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 56
Total 20%
Male 16.1%
Female 25.4% (2009)


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  Uruguay (Montevideo):


  GPS points from Uruguay (Montevideo)

Canada De Las Chacras Departamento De Salto

Paso De Carpinteria Departamento De Durazno

Arroyuelo De Arguelles Departamento De Rio Negro

Corrales Lavalleja

Perros Canelones

Arroyo Godoy Lavalleja

Arroyo De Cauallero Departamento De Durazno





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