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The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his abrupt death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his Vice President Rupiah BANDA, who subsequently won a special presidential by-election in October 2008. Michael SATA was elected President in September 2011.


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Military

Military branches
Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, National Service (paramilitary youth organization) (2009)

Military service age and obligation
National registration required at age 16; 18-27 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; mandatory HIV testing upon enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)

Manpower available for military service
Males age 16-49 3,041,069
Females age 16-49 2,948,291 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
Males age 16-49 1,745,656
Females age 16-49 1,688,670 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
Male 158,592
Female 158,805 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures World Ranking: 79
1.8% of GDP (2005 est.)


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  Zambia (Lusaka):


  GPS points from Zambia (Lusaka)

Milonda Northern

Katokamena North-western Province

Chitundu Copperbelt

Kapala Luapula Province

Chisenga Northern Province

Chunungoma Northern Province

Mkangasi Eastern Province

Kanyunga Eastern Province




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