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Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment that would allow him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, a military coup deposed TANDJA, immediately suspended the constitution and dissolved the Cabinet. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou emerged victorious from a crowded field in the election following the coup and was inaugurated in April 2011. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. The Nigerien Movement for Justice, a predominately Tuareg ethnic group, emerged in February 2007, and attacked several military targets in Niger's northern region throughout 2007 and 2008. Successful government offensives in 2009 limited the rebels' operational capabilities.


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Economy - overview
Niger is a landlocked, Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes about 40% of GDP and provides livelihood for about 80% of the population. Niger also has sizable reserves of oil, and oil production, refining, and exports are expected to grow significantly between 2011 and 2016. Drought, desertification, and strong population growth have undercut the economy. Niger shares a common currency, the CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), with seven other members of the West African Monetary Union. In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund on a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduced Niger''s annual debt service obligations, freeing funds for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs geared at poverty reduction. In December 2005, Niger received 100% multilateral debt relief from the IMF, which translated into the forgiveness of approximately US$86 million in debts to the IMF, excluding the remaining assistance under HIPC. The economy was hurt when the international community cut off non-humanitarian aid in response to TANDJA''s moves to extend his term as president. Nearly half of the government''s budget is derived from foreign donor resources. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. The government has announced an expansionary budget for 2012 with anticipated revenue increases from uranium, oil production, and donor aid, and it has made efforts to secure a new three-year extended credit facility with the IMF following the one that completed in 2011. Food security remains a problem in the north of the country, exacerbated by the return of Libyan migrants.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 149
$11.78 billion (2011 est.)
$11.52 billion (2010 est.)
$10.67 billion (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$6.022 billion (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 141
2.3% (2011 est.)
8% (2010 est.)
-0.9% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 220
$800 (2011 est.)
$800 (2010 est.)
$800 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 39%
Industry 16%
Services 45% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 82
4.688 million (2007)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 90%
Industry 6%
Services 4% (1995)

Unemployment rate

Population below poverty line
63% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% 3.7%
Highest 10% 28.5% (2007)

Distribution of family income - gini index World Ranking: 92
34 (2007)
50.5 (1995)

$1.255 billion (includes $134 million from foreign sources)
Expenditures $1.424 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 156
20.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 92
-2.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 53
2.9% (2011 est.)
0.8% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate World Ranking: 73
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate World Ranking: 163
4.5% (31 December 2011 est.)
4.3% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 150
$939.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$917.7 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 162
$1.201 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.171 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 163
$825.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$715.4 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

Agriculture - products
Cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry

Uranium mining, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses

Industrial production growth rate World Ranking: 62
5.1% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production World Ranking: 175
200 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 157
626 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports
440 million kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 209
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 164
6,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 185
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 152
5,443 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 174
0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 108
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 116
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 155
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 104
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 111
0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 129
-$1.343 billion (2011 est.)
-$1.338 billion (2010 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 154
$1.166 billion (2011 est.)
$1.04 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
Uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions

Exports - partners
US 49.1%, Nigeria 29.3%, Russia 10.3%, Ghana 4.1% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 160
$1.969 billion (2011 est.)
$1.821 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
Foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals

Imports - partners
France 15.8%, China 9.8%, Nigeria 9%, French Polynesia 8.5%, Belgium 6.9%, India 5%, Togo 4.8% (2011)

Debt - external World Ranking: 145
$1.331 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.125 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
471.87 (2011)
495.28 (2010)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)
493.51 (2007)

Fiscal year
Calendar year


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Niger (Niamey):
Country Flag
Country Locator

GPS points from Niger (Niamey)

square Dadafuy Agadez

square Guidan Tajri Zinder

square Tassia (ng05)

square Dan Toudou Zinder

square Rabami Tahoua

square Sambou Kwara Dosso

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