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Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves and increasing its manufacturing base. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.


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Geography

Location
Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates
41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map references
Asia

Area World Ranking: 57
Total 447,400 sq km
Land 425,400 sq km
Water 22,000 sq km

Area - comparative
Slightly larger than California

Land boundaries
Total 6,221 km
Border countries
Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline

Maritime claims
None (doubly landlocked)

Climate
Mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Terrain
Mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
Highest point Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources
Natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use
Arable land 10.51%
Permanent crops 0.76%
Other 88.73% (2005)

Irrigated land
42,230 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
72.2 cu km (2003)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total 58.34 cu km/yr (5%/2%/93%)
Per capita 2,194 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards
NA

Environment - current issues
Shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified
None of the selected agreements

Geography - note
Along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world


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Uzbekistan (Tashkent):


GPS points from Uzbekistan (Tashkent)

Kuchak Buxoro Viloyati

Kal'takul' Qashqadaryo Viloyati

Petroaleksandrovsk Karakalpakstan

Gazli Buxoro Viloyati

Imeni Dimitrova Xorazm Viloyati

Asalchi Sirdaryo Viloyati

Chiroqchi Shahri Qashqadaryo Viloyati

Sugrali Navoiy Viloyati




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