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Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves and increasing its manufacturing base. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 87
53 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 33
Over 3,047 m 6
2,438 to 3,047 m 13
1,524 to 2,437 m 6
914 to 1,523 m 4
Under 914 m 4 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 20
2,438 to 3,047 m 2
Under 914 m 18 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 10,253 km; oil 868 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 47
Total 3,645 km
Broad gauge
3,645 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 55
Total 86,496 km
Paved 75,511 km
Unpaved 10,985 km (2000)

Waterways World Ranking: 63
1,100 km (2012)

Ports and terminals
Termiz (Amu Darya)


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Uzbekistan (Tashkent):


GPS points from Uzbekistan (Tashkent)

Tepetay Qashqadaryo Viloyati

Koshmulla Qashqadaryo Viloyati

Takchilik Uzbekistan (general)

Kolodets Ramadan Uzbekistan (general)

Pyandzh-ob Surxondaryo Viloyati

Gora Dzhanalash Surxondaryo Viloyati

Kirman Xorazm Viloyati

Zylkha Farg`ona Viloyati




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