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The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in Asia.


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Geography

Location
Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates
4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references
Southeast Asia

Area World Ranking: 173
Total 5,765 sq km
Land 5,265 sq km
Water 500 sq km

Area - comparative
Slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries
Total 381 km
Border countries Malaysia 381 km

Coastline
161 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone 200 nm or to median line

Climate
Tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain
Flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes
Lowest point South China Sea 0 m
Highest point Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources
Petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use
Arable land 2.08%
Permanent crops 0.87%
Other 97.05% (2005)

Irrigated land
10 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
8.5 cu km (1999)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total 0.09
Per capita 243 cu m/yr (1994)

Natural hazards
Typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - current issues
Seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
Signed, but not ratified
None of the selected agreements

Geography - note
Close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia


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  Brunei (Bandar Seri Begawan):


  GPS points from Brunei (Bandar Seri Begawan)

Kampong Rambai Brunei (general)

Bukit Batu Patam Brunei (general)

Sungei Kianghi Brunei (general)

Sungai Tanjong Pampang Brunei (general)

Fairley Baram Oil Field Brunei (general)

Sungai Tanah Panggal Brunei (general)

Sungai Agas Brunei (general)

Sungei Berakus Brunei (general)




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