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After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with the West. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004, formally joined the OECD in late 2010, and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2011.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 141
18 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 13
Over 3,047 m 2
2,438 to 3,047 m 8
1,524 to 2,437 m 2
914 to 1,523 m 1 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 5
1,524 to 2,437 m 1
914 to 1,523 m 1
Under 914 m 3 (2012)

Heliports
1 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 859 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 84
Total 1,200 km
Broad gauge
1,200 km 1.520-m and 1.524-m gauge (133 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 77
Total
58,034 km (includes 41,912 urban roads)
Paved
34,936 km (includes 104 km of expressways)
Unpaved 23,098 km (2009)

Waterways World Ranking: 91
335 km (320 km are navigable year round) (2011)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 89
Total 25
By type
Cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 18, petroleum tanker 2
Foreign-owned 3 (Germany 1, Norway 2)
Registered in other countries
63 (Antigua and Barbuda 10, Belize 1, Cambodia 1, Canada 1, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 6, Dominica 6, Finland 2, Latvia 3, Malta 16, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8, Sierra Leone 2, Sweden 3, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Kuivastu, Kunda, Muuga, Parnu Reid, Sillamae, Tallinn


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  Estonia (Tallinn):


  GPS points from Estonia (Tallinn)

Abbul Saaremaa

Suure-konguta Tartumaa

Rangu Raplamaa

Klein-sankt-marien Laane-virumaa

Stor-rago Harjumaa

Sorve Harjumaa

Kubu Saaremaa

Pidula Asundus Saaremaa




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