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Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides. The territories Israel occupied since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted. On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations were conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement. Israel and Palestinian officials signed on 13 September 1993 a Declaration of Principles (also known as the "Oslo Accords") guiding an interim period of Palestinian self-rule. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. In addition, on 25 May 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982. In April 2003, US President BUSH, working in conjunction with the EU, UN, and Russia - the "Quartet" - took the lead in laying out a roadmap to a final settlement of the conflict by 2005, based on reciprocal steps by the two parties leading to two states, Israel and a democratic Palestine. However, progress toward a permanent status agreement was undermined by Israeli-Palestinian violence between September 2003 and February 2005. In the summer of 2005, Israel unilaterally disengaged from the Gaza Strip, evacuating settlers and its military while retaining control over most points of entry into the Gaza Strip. The election of HAMAS to head the Palestinian Legislative Council froze relations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA). Ehud OLMERT became prime minister in March 2006 and presided over a 34-day conflict with Hizballah in Lebanon in June-August 2006 and a 23-day conflict with HAMAS in the Gaza Strip during December 2008 and January 2009. OLMERT, who in June 2007 resumed talks with PA President Mahmoud ABBAS, resigned in September 2008. Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU formed a coalition in March 2009 following a February 2009 general election. Direct talks launched in September 2010 collapsed following the expiration of Israel's 10-month partial settlement construction moratorium in the West Bank.


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Airports World Ranking: 93
47 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 29
Over 3,047 m 2
2,438 to 3,047 m 5
1,524 to 2,437 m 6
914 to 1,523 m 11
Under 914 m 5 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 18
1,524 to 2,437 m 1
914 to 1,523 m 3
Under 914 m 14 (2012)

3 (2012)

Gas 211 km; oil 442 km; refined products 261 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 89
Total 975 km
Standard gauge 975 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 115
Total 18,290 km
18,290 km (includes 146 km of expressways) (2008)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 120
Total 8
By type Cargo 1, container 7
Registered in other countries
48 (Bermuda 3, Georgia 1, Honduras 1, Liberia 34, Malta 3, Moldova 2, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Ashdod, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa


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  Israel (Jerusalem):

  GPS points from Israel (Jerusalem)

Esh Sheikh Abou Halyoun Northern District

Ga`ton Northern District

Horbat Homed Central District

Ashdoth Ya`aqov Northern District

Khirbet Tall Waqiya Northern District

Hedora Haifa District

Hatsor Southern District

Villa Melchett Northern District
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