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In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens, including approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF tried in 1990. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations. Rwanda also joined the Commonwealth in late 2009.


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Military

Military branches
Rwandan Defense Force (RDF): Rwandan Army (Rwandan Land Force), Rwandan Air Force (2012)

Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Rwandan citizenship required (2011)

Manpower available for military service
Males age 16-49 2,625,917
Females age 16-49 2,608,110 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
Males age 16-49 1,685,066
Females age 16-49 1,749,580 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
Male 110,736
Female 110,328 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures World Ranking: 47
2.9% of GDP (2006 est.)


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  Rwanda (Kigali):


  GPS points from Rwanda (Kigali)

Mwoga Kibungo

Mwulire Kigali

Butongo Eastern Province

Lac Bilira Kibungo

Kabilizi Byumba

Gakoro Ruhengeri

Colline Ndoma Byumba

Kabarondo Kibungo




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