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Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, has overseen a robust macroeconomic performance. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president, defeating Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi, the daughter of Alberto FUJIMORI. Since his election, HUMALA has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceeding administrations.


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Military

Military branches
Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP (includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard)), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2010)

Military service age and obligation
18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Manpower available for military service
Males age 16-49 7,385,588
Females age 16-49 7,727,623 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
Males age 16-49 5,788,629
Females age 16-49 6,565,097 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
Male 304,094
Female 298,447 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures World Ranking: 94
1.5% of GDP (2006)


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Peru (Lima):


GPS points from Peru (Lima)

Acoichinca Departamento De Cusco

Tomas Lima

Cerros Tres Lagunas Departamento De Ica

Coronel Portillo Departamento De Loreto

Trancanan Departamento De Ica

Rio Jucumarini Departamento De Moquegua

Santa Cruz Departamento De Cajamarca

Pajonal Chinganari Departamento De Ucayali




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