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Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun
Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Adjective
Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%

Languages
Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English (official) 2.1%, other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)

Religions
Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001 census)

Population World Ranking: 144
2,098,018 (July 2012 est.)
Note
Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years
33.9% (male 356,346/female 343,452)
15-64 years
62.2% (male 649,931/female 634,998)
65 years and over
3.9% (male 32,542/female 48,129) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 22.5 years
Male 22.4 years
Female 22.5 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 80
1.477% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 76
22.02 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 29
12 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 20
4.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Note
There is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 61% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
GABORONE (capital) 196,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.67 male(s)/female
Total population
1.02 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 61
160 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 144
Total 10.49 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 11.03 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
9.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 197
Total population 55.74 years
Male 56.93 years
Female 54.51 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 83
2.46 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 26
10.3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.336 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density
1.81 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 2
24.8% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 18
320,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 35
5,800 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease Malaria (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 64
10.7% (2000)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 8
8.9% of GDP (2009)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 84.5%
Male 84%
Female 84.9% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 12 years
Male 12 years
Female 12 years (2007)


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  Botswana (Gaborone):


  GPS points from Botswana (Gaborone)

Maope Botswana (general)

Mabele A Pudi Central District

Khore Botswana (general)

Sherm Vlei Botswana (general)

Taokhe Botswana (general)

Dikabi Botswana (general)

Gutta Botswana (general)

Nkoehaphiri Kweneng District




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