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During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula except Singapore formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore as well as Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's independence were marred by a Communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's departure from the Federation in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to the development of manufacturing, services, and tourism. Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (in office since April 2009) has continued these pro-business policies.


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Economy

Economy - overview
Malaysia, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in Islamic finance, high technology industries, biotechnology, and services. The NAJIB administration also is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and reduce the economy's dependence on exports. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics, oil and gas, palm oil and rubber - remain a significant driver of the economy. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel, combined with strained government finances, has forced Kuala Lumpur to begin to reduce government subsidies. The government is also trying to lessen its dependence on state oil producer Petronas. The oil and gas sector supplies more than 40% of government revenue. The central bank maintains healthy foreign exchange reserves, and a well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysia''s exposure to riskier financial instruments and the global financial crisis. Nevertheless, Malaysia could be vulnerable to a fall in commodity prices or a general slowdown in global economic activity because exports are a major component of GDP. In order to attract increased investment, NAJIB has raised possible revisions to the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but he has encountered significant opposition, especially from Malay nationalists and other vested interests.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 30
$453 billion (2011 est.)
$430.9 billion (2010 est.)
$402 billion (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$278.7 billion (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 65
5.1% (2011 est.)
7.2% (2010 est.)
-1.6% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 77
$15,800 (2011 est.)
$15,300 (2010 est.)
$14,400 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 12%
Industry 40%
Services 48% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 45
11.91 million (2011 est.)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 13%
Industry 36%
Services 51% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate World Ranking: 27
3.1% (2011 est.)
3.4% (2010 est.)

Population below poverty line
3.8% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% 1.8%
Highest 10% 34.7% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - gini index World Ranking: 34
46.2 (2009)
49.2 (1997)

Investment (gross fixed) World Ranking: 94
20.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget
Revenues $59.8 billion
Expenditures $73.8 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 149
21.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 160
-5% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt World Ranking: 52
53.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
53.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
Note

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 63
3.2% (2011 est.)
1.7% (2010 est.)
Note
Approximately 30% of goods are price-controlled

Central bank discount rate World Ranking: 106
3% (31 December 2011)
2.83% (31 December 2010)

Commercial bank prime lending rate World Ranking: 155
4.92% (31 December 2011 est.)
5.05% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 39
$85.91 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$72.77 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 25
$384.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$358.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 32
$362.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$328.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares World Ranking: 23
$414 billion (31 December 2011)
$410.5 billion (31 December 2010)
$256 billion (31 December 2009)

Agriculture - products
Peninsular Malaysia - palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice; Sabah - palm oil, subsistence crops; rubber, timber; Sarawak - palm oil, rubber, timber; pepper

Industries
Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Industrial production growth rate World Ranking: 134
1.4% (2011 est.)

Electricity - production World Ranking: 29
118.2 billion kWh (2011 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 32
93.8 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - exports
91.7 million kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 28
716,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 31
556,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 26
644,900 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 29
355,300 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 21
5.8 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 13
66.5 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 27
35.7 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 10
30.79 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 55
1.269 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 15
2.4 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 15
$30.99 billion (2011 est.)
$27.29 billion (2010 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 25
$225.6 billion (2011 est.)
$199 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
Electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals

Exports - partners
China 17.9%, Singapore 12.8%, Japan 10.6%, US 8.6%, Thailand 4.4%, Hong Kong 4.1% (2010 est.)

Imports World Ranking: 29
$177.1 billion (2011 est.)
$157.3 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
Electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals

Imports - partners
Singapore 20.5%, China 13.7%, Japan 10%, US 7.9%, Thailand 6%, Indonesia 5.6% (2010 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold World Ranking: 20
$133.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$106.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Debt - external World Ranking: 48
$87.81 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$81.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home World Ranking: 32
$112.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$101.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad World Ranking: 27
$109.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$96.76 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates
Ringgits (MYR) per US dollar -
3.06 (2011 est.)
3.22 (2010 est.)
3.52 (2009)
3.33 (2008)
3.46 (2007)

Fiscal year
Calendar year


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  Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur):


  GPS points from Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur)

Sungai Kalis Johor

Sungai Sengelau Sarawak

Observatory Point Malaysia (general)

Bole Sabah

Tanah Putih Pahang


Kampong Kalong Terengganu

Sungai Lepar Kelantan




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