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People and Society






The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. Tajikistan experienced several security incidents in 2010, including a mass prison-break from a Dushanbe detention facility, the country's first suicide car bombing in Khujand, and armed conflict between government forces and opposition militants in the Rasht Valley. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan is seeking WTO membership and joined NATO's Partnership for Peace in 2002.


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People And Society

Noun Tajikistani(s)
Adjective Tajikistani

Ethnic groups
Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)

Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business

Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)

Population World Ranking: 96
7,768,385 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
33.9% (male 1,316,623/female 1,270,899)
15-64 years
62.7% (male 2,368,554/female 2,413,982)
65 years and over
3.4% (male 108,896/female 148,246) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 22.9 years
Male 22.4 years
Female 23.4 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 65
1.823% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 53
25.93 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 150
6.49 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 154
-1.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 26% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
2.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
DUSHANBE (capital) 704,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.73 male(s)/female
Total population
0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 93
65 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 64
Total 37.33 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 41.91 deaths/1,000 live births
32.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 164
Total population 66.38 years
Male 63.3 years
Female 69.61 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 70
2.85 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 133
5.3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
2.013 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density
5.41 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 102
0.2% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 101
9,100 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 97
Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease Malaria (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 54
14.9% (2005)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 119
3.5% of GDP (2008)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99.7%
Male 99.8%
Female 99.6% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 11 years
Male 12 years
Female 10 years (2008)


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  Tajikistan (Dushanbe):

  GPS points from Tajikistan (Dushanbe)

Gumayak Tajikistan (general)

Kara-jilga Tajikistan (general)

Siyeob Viloyati Khatlon

Ishkashim Post Gorno-badakhshan

Kirpichnyy Viloyati Khatlon

Kolodets )) (( Kazak-kuduk Tajikistan (general)

Komsomolabad Viloyati Khatlon

Ovrag Sangou-khataol' Tajikistan (general)
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