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The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2010 the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form None
Conventional short form Mongolia
Local long form None
Local short form Mongol Uls
Former Outer Mongolia

Government type
Parliamentary

Capital
Name Ulaanbaatar
Geographic coordinates 47 55 N, 106 55 E
Time difference
UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence
11 July 1921 (from China)

National holiday
Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution
13 January 1992

Legal system
Civil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state
President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009)
Head of government
Prime Minister Norov ALTNKHUYAG (since 9 August 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 6 December 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Dendev TERBISHDAGVA (since 20 August 2012)
Cabinet
Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
Elections
Presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 May 2009 (next to be held by May 2013); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural
Election results
In elections in May 2009, Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ elected president; percent of vote - Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ 51.2%, Nambar ENKHBAYAR 47.4%, others 1.3%

Legislative branch
Unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; of which 48 members are directly elected from 26 electoral districts, while 28 members are proportionally elected based on a party's share of the total votes; all serve four-year terms)
Elections
Last held on 28 June 2012 (next to be held in June 2016)
Election results
Percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DP 31, MPP 25, Justice Coalition 11, others 5, vacant 4

Judicial branch
Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president); Constitutional Court (this independent court resolves disputes about potentially unconstitutional laws and acts of the president, members of parliament, and the cabinet)

Political parties and leaders
Civil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Dangaasuren EHKHBAT]; Democratic Party or DP [Norov ALTANHUYAG]; Mongolian People's Party or MPP [O. ENKHTUVSHIN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR]

Political pressure groups and leaders
Other
Human rights groups; women's groups

International organization participation
ADB, ARF, CD, CICA, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Khasbazar BEKHBAT
Chancery
2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
Telephone [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX [1] (202) 298-9227
Consulate(s) general New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission
Ambassador Piper Anne Wind CAMPBELL
Embassy
Big Ring Road, 11th Micro Region, Ulaanbaatar, 14171 Mongolia
Mailing address
PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar-13
Telephone [976] (11) 329-095
FAX [976] (11) 320-776

Flag description
Three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity

National symbol(s)
Soyombo emblem

National anthem
Name
"Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
Lyrics/music
Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ
Note
Music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; the anthem's lyrics have been altered on numerous occasions


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  Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar):


  GPS points from Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar)

Santu Sumu Ovorhangay

Hotol Usa Hudag Middle Govi



Pereval Aydasyin Daba Ulaanbaatar Hot

Sebhuul Hudag South Govi

Ubur Urtoyn Urto East Aimak

Po-erh-ho Dzavhan Aymag




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