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The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2010 the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 98
44 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 15
Over 3,047 m 1
2,438 to 3,047 m 11
1,524 to 2,437 m 3 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 29
Over 3,047 m 2
2,438 to 3,047 m 3
1,524 to 2,437 m 23
Under 914 m 1 (2012)

Heliports
1 (2012)

Railways World Ranking: 73
Total 1,908 km
Broad gauge 1,908 km 1.520-m gauge
Note
The railway is 50 percent owned by the Russian State Railway (2010)

Roadways World Ranking: 81
Total 49,249 km
Paved 3,015 km
Unpaved 46,234 km (2010)

Waterways World Ranking: 82
580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, they are open from May to September) (2010)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 68
Total 57
By type
Bulk carrier 21, cargo 25, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 2, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 1
Foreign-owned
44 (Indonesia 2, Japan 2, North Korea 1, Russia 2, Singapore 3, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 33) (2010)


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  Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar):


  GPS points from Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar)

Ibegeelte Uula Central Aymag


Kolodets Ulan-tologoy Hentiy Aymag


T'u-erh-ken-ta-fan Bayan-olgiy Aymag

Pereval Tengys-daban Mongolia (general)

Karakorum Oevoerhangay

Ondor Hoh Uul Hovsgol Aymag




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